The project found that individualised case management could be identified in every system examined. The expenditure on managing individual cases is substantial. Despite this, nowhere is case management designed and delivered as an integrated, system-wide function; nowhere does a single plan for case management span the pre-sentence and post-sentence, and custody and community stages. Most often arrangements are specific to particular providers, separate stages of the correctional system, individual sentences or particular projects. In some places, much attention has been applied to some of the tasks which make up case management, like assessment, but too often the process itself is not managed as an integrated whole. Quality assurance is weak.
The result is duplication on a large scale, creating a repetitive, fragmented experience for accused and offenders passing through systems. Systems are consequently less efficient and effective than they otherwise could be.
At a time when the increasing mobility of offenders in Europe makes it all the more important that there is an understanding in one jurisdiction about the arrangements in others, the project found little evidence that case management arrangements are understood between jurisdictions.