At the level of individual "clients" or offenders, the project found two approaches to case management in use in correctional systems; typically offenders change from one approach to the other as they pass in and out of custody.
Case management can be organised, and the caseload can be segmented, or "streamed" in different ways:
The "case management model" applied in any jurisdiction is whatever combination of the options above it selects.
The DOMICE project tried to understand which combinations were applied in each jurisdiction, and to help each jurisdiction to understand how their model would impact upon offenders passing through the system.
We have already seen that "case management" is not a term which refers to a single way of doing things. At best it describes a family of related approaches.
The approach or stance taken will differ from case to case. Case management may, for example, be passive and supportive, or active and assertive. In DOMICE we have referred to these different approaches as MODES.
Summarising from the research, four different MODES of case management can be identified in correctional work. Different writers, academics and policy makers sometimes use different words to refer to them.
ADMINISTRATIVE mode: the least intrusive and lowest cost; doing the least necessary to implement the sentence
BROKERAGE mode: a supportive, guiding, linking mode, typical of resettlement work
THERAPEUTIC mode: more intrusive and assertive, including technical intervention(s) like addictions work
COMPREHENSIVE mode: complex, intrusive, including overt control; reserved usually for the most dangerous
The skills and resources needed vary from the low-cost ADMINISTRATIVE mode to the high-cost COMPREHENSIVE mode. The DOMICE Project tried to find out whether there is a dominant mode in a system or a service, and whether and how different case management MODES are applied to different cases.